// Andy Friesen --

Testable IO in Haskell

2015-06-17 00:00:00 +0000

At IMVU, we write a lot of tests. Ideally, we write tests for every feature and bugfix we write. The problem we run into is one of scale: if each of IMVU’s tests were 99.9% reliable, 1 out of every 5 runs would result in an intermittent failure.

Tests erroneously fail for lots of reasons: the test could be running in the midst of the “extra” daylight-savings hour or a leap day (or a leap second!). The database could have been left corrupted by another test. CPU scheduling could prioritize one process over another. Maybe the random number generator just so happened to produce two zeroes in a row.

All of these things boil down to the same root cause: nondeterminism within the test.

We’ve done a lot of work at IMVU to isolate and control nondeterminism in our test frameworks. One of my favourite techniques is the way we make our Haskell tests provably perfectly deterministic.

Here’s how it works.

This post is Literate Haskell, which basically means you can point GHC at it directly and run it. You can download it here.

We’ll start with some boilerplate.

{-# LANGUAGE FlexibleInstances #-}
{-# LANGUAGE NamedFieldPuns #-}

module Main where

import Control.Monad.State.Lazy as S

What we’re looking to achieve here is a syntax-lightweight way of writing side effectful logic in a way that permits easy unit testing.

In particular, a property we’d very much like to have is the ability to deny our actions access to IO when they are running in a unit test.

For this example, we’ll posit that the very important business action we wish to test is to prompt the user for their name, then say hello:

importantBusinessAction = do
    writeLine "Please enter your name: "
    name <- readLine
    if "" == name
        then do
            writeLine "I really really need a name!"
            writeLine $ "Hello, " ++ name ++ "!"

We’ll achieve this by defining a class of monad in which testable side effects can occur. We’ll name this class World.

class Monad m => World m where
    writeLine :: String -> m ()
    readLine :: m String

We can now write the type of our importantBusinessAction:

importantBusinessAction :: World m => m ()

The name of this type can be read as “an action producing unit for some monad m in World.”

When our application is running in production, we don’t require anything except IO to run, so it’s perfectly sensible for IO to be a context in which World actions can be run. The Haskell Prelude already offers the exact functions we need, so this instance is completely trivial:

instance World IO where
    writeLine = putStrLn
    readLine = getLine

In unit tests, we specifically want to deny access to any kind of nondeterminism, so we’ll use the State monad. State provides the illusion of a mutable piece of data through a pure computation. We’ll pack the state of our application up in a record.

type FakeIO = S.State FakeState

(I’ll get to FakeState in a second)

Aside from reliability, this design has another very useful property: It is impossible for tests to interfere with one another even if many tests share the same state. This means that “test fixtures” can trivially be effected by simply running an action and using the resulting state in as many tests as desired.

The state record FakeState itself essentially captures the full state of the fake application at any one moment.

The writeLine implementation is very easy: We just need to accumulate a list of lines that were printed. We can carry that directly in our state record.

The readLine action is a bit more complicated. We’re going to write all kinds of tests for our application, and we really don’t want to burn any one particular behaviour into the framework. We want to parameterize this on a per-test basis.

We’ll solve this by embedding an action directly into our state record.

data FakeState = FS
    { fsWrittenLines :: [String]
    , fsReadLine     :: FakeIO String

def :: FakeState
def = FS
    { fsWrittenLines = []
    , fsReadLine = return ""

Now, given this record, we can declare that FakeIO is also a valid World Monad, and provide implementations for our platform when run under unit test.

instance World (S.State FakeState) where
    writeLine s = do
        st <- S.get
        let oldLines = fsWrittenLines st
        S.put st { fsWrittenLines = s:oldLines }

    readLine = do
        st <- S.get
        let readLineAction = fsReadLine st

We also write a small helper function to make unit tests read a bit more naturally:

runFakeWorld :: b -> State b a -> (a, b)
runFakeWorld = flip S.runState

Now, let’s write our first unit test.

We wish to test that our application rejects the empty string as a name. When the user does this, we wish to verify that the customer sees an error message and is asked again for their name.

First, we’ll craft a readLine implementation that produces the empty string once, then the string “Joe.”

Making this function more natural without compromising extensibility is left as an exercise to the reader. :)

Note that by providing the type FakeIO String, we have effectively authored an action that can only be used in a unit test. The build will fail if production code tries to use this action.

main :: IO ()
main = do
    let readLine_that_is_incorrect_once :: FakeIO String
        readLine_that_is_incorrect_once = do
            S.modify (\s -> s { fsReadLine = return "Joe" })
            return ""

Now that we have that, we can create a FakeState that represents the scenario we wish to test.

    let initState = def
            { fsReadLine = readLine_that_is_incorrect_once }

And go!

    let ((), endState) = runFakeWorld initState importantBusinessAction

Note that runFakeWorld produces a pair of the result of the action and the final state. We can inspect this record freely:

    forM_ (reverse $ fsWrittenLines endState) $ \line ->
        print line

That’s it!

In a real application, your FakeState analogue will be much more complex, potentially including things like a clock, a pseudo-random number generator, and potentially state for a pure database of some sort. Some of these things are themselves complex to build out, but, as long as those implementations are pure, everything snaps together neatly.

If complete isolation from IO is impractical, this technique could also be adjusted to run atop a StateT rather than pure State. This allows for imperfect side-effect isolation where necessary.

Happy testing!

Source Code.